Ndeupi Musiyano Uripo Pakati PePCR uye Antigen COVID-19 Test? Imwe Nyanzvi Yezvinhu Zvipenyu Inotsanangura
Ndeupi Musiyano Uripo Pakati PePCR uye Antigen COVID-19 Test? Imwe Nyanzvi Yezvinhu Zvipenyu Inotsanangura
Anonim

Panguva ino mudenda, iwe kana mumwe munhu waunoziva angangove akagamuchira kamwechete COVID-19 bvunzo. Asi unoziva here kuti ndeupi rudzi rweyedzo yawakawana uye nekusimba uye nekushaya simba kweizvi bvunzo dzakasiyana?

Ndiri molecular biologist, uye kubva muna Kubvumbi 2020 ndanga ndiri chikamu chechikwata chiri kushanda paNational Institutes of Health-inotsigirwa chirongwa chinonzi RADx icho chiri kubatsira vanogadzira bvunzo dzekukurumidza kuona kana munhu abatwa neSARS-CoV- 2, hutachiona hunokonzera COVID-19.

Mhando mbiri huru dzebvunzo dzinoshandiswa kuona hutachiona neSARS-CoV-2: bvunzo dzemamorekuru - dzinozivikanwa zviri nani sePCR bvunzo - uye antigen bvunzo. Imwe neimwe inoona chikamu chakasiyana chehutachiona, uye kuti inoshanda sei inokanganisa kumhanya kwebvunzo uye huchokwadi hwehukama. Saka ndeipi misiyano pakati pemhando idzi dzebvunzo?

Kutsvaga genetic evidence

Danho rekutanga kune chero rudzi rwebvunzo kutora sampuli kubva kumurwere. Iyi inogona kunge iri swab yemhino kana kuti mate.

Kune PCR bvunzo, danho rinotevera kukwidziridzwa kwemajini kuitira kuti kunyange shoma shoma yejini dzekoronavirus mumuenzaniso wemurwere dzinogona kuonekwa. Izvi zvinoitwa pachishandiswa nzira inonzi polymerase chain reaction. Mushandi wezvehutano anotora sampuli uye anoibata ne enzyme inoshandura RNA kuita DNA ine tambo mbiri. Zvadaro, DNA inosanganiswa nemushonga une enzyme inonzi polymerase uye inopisa, zvichiita kuti DNA iparadzane kuita zvidimbu zviviri zveDNA zvine tambo imwe chete. Tembiricha inodzikiswa, uye polymerase, ichibatsirwa nekamwe kadiki kadiki kanonzi DNA inonzi primer, inosunga kuDNA ine tambo imwe chete yoita kuti ikopi. Iwo maprimers anovimbisa kuti chete coronavirus DNA inokwidziridzwa. Iwe zvino wagadzira makopi maviri eiyo coronavirus DNA kubva kune yekutanga chidimbu cheRNA.

Michina yomurabhoritari inodzokorora kudziyisa nokutonhodza uku ka30 kusvika ku40, zvichiita kuti DNA yapetwa kaviri kusvikira makopi bhiriyoni echidimbu chepakutanga. Iyo amplified sequence ine fluorescent dhayi inoverengwa nemuchina.

Iyo inosimudzira midziyo yePCR inobvumira bvunzo kuti ibudirire kuona kunyange idiki diki yekoronavirus genetic zvinhu mumuenzaniso. Izvi zvinoita kuti ive yakanyanya kujeka uye chaiyo bvunzo. Nekurongeka kunoswedera ku100%, ndiyo chiyero chegoridhe chekuongorora SARS-CoV-2.

Nekudaro, PCR bvunzo dzine humwe utera zvakare. Vanoda nyanzvi yerabhoritari ine hunyanzvi uye midziyo yakakosha yekuzvimhanyisa, uye maitiro ekusimudzira anogona kutora awa kana kupfuura kubva pakutanga kusvika pakupedzisira. Kazhinji, hombe chete, nzvimbo dzekuyedza dzepakati - senge marabhu echipatara - dzinogona kuita bvunzo dzakawanda dzePCR panguva. Pakati pemienzaniso yekuunganidza, yekufambisa, kukwidziridzwa, kuona uye kushuma, zvinogona kutora kubva pamaawa gumi nemaviri kusvika pamazuva mashanu kuti munhu awane mhinduro. Uye pakupedzisira, ivo havana kudhura pamadhora zana kana kupfuura pamuyedzo.

Antigen bvunzo

Kurumidza, kuyedzwa kwakaringana kwakakosha kuve nehutachiona hunotapukira seSARS-CoV-2. PCR bvunzo ndeyechokwadi asi inogona kutora nguva yakareba kuburitsa mhinduro. Antigen bvunzo, imwe hombe mhando yekoronavirus bvunzo, nepo inokurumidza, haina kunyatsojeka.

Maantigens zvinhu zvinokonzeresa kuti muviri ugadzire mhinduro yekudzivirirwa kwezvirwere - zvinokonzeresa chizvarwa chemasoja ekudzivirira chirwere. Aya maedzo anoshandisa masoja ekudzivirira chirwere akagadzirwa nerebhu kutsvaga maantigen kubva kuhutachiona hweSARS-CoV-2.

Kuti uedze antigen test, unotanga wabata sample nemvura ine munyu nesipo inotsemura maseru nezvimwe zvimedu. Wobva waisa iyi mvura kune bvunzo tambo ine masoja ekudzivirira chirwere akananga kuSARS-CoV-2 akapendwa pairi mutsetse mutete.

Sezvinongoita masoja ekudzivirira chirwere ari mumuviri wako, iwo ari pamutsetse webvunzo anosunga kune chero antigen mumuenzaniso. Kana masoja ekudzivirira chirwere akasunga maantigens econavirus, mutsara weruvara unooneka pamutsetse wekuyedza unoratidza kuvepo kweSARS-CoV-2.

Antigen bvunzo dzine akati wandei masimba. Chekutanga, ari nyore kushandisa zvekuti vanhu vasina kudzidziswa kwakakosha vanogona kuaita uye kududzira mhedzisiro - kunyangwe kumba. Ivo zvakare vanoburitsa mibairo nekukurumidza, kazhinji isingasviki maminetsi gumi nemashanu. Imwe bhenefiti ndeyekuti bvunzo idzi dzinogona kunge dzisingadhure pamadhora gumi-madhora gumi nemashanu pamubvunzo.

Antigen bvunzo dzine zvimwe zvinokanganisa. Zvichienderana nemamiriro ezvinhu, vanogona kunge vasina kunyatsojeka pane PCR bvunzo. Kana munhu aine zviratidzo kana aine hutachiona hwakawanda muhurongwa hwavo, maantigen bvunzo anonyatso. Nekudaro, kusiyana nema molecular PCR bvunzo, antigen bvunzo hadzikudze chinhu chavari kutsvaga. Izvi zvinoreva kuti panofanirwa kuve nehutachiona hweantigen hwakakwana mumuenzaniso kune masoja ekudzivirira chirwere ari patest strip kuti abudise chiratidzo. Kana munhu ari mumatanho ekutanga ehutachiona, hapana hutachiona hwakawanda huri mumhino nepahuro, kubva kune izvo zvinotorwa samples. Saka, antigen bvunzo dzinogona kupotsa nyaya dzekutanga dzeCCIDID-19. Panguva iyi zvakare munhu anenge asina zviratidzo, saka vanogona kunge vasingazive kuti ane hutachiona.

Miedzo yakawanda, ruzivo rwakanaka

Maantigen mashoma ebvunzo atovepo pamusoro pekaunda, uye muna Gumiguru 4, 2021, Food and Drug Administration yakapa mvumo yekushandisa emergency kune imwe imba yeantigen test. Hurumende yeUS iri kushinhawo kuti bvunzo idzi dziwanikwe kune veruzhinji.

PaRADx, chirongwa chandiri chikamu chayo, parizvino tiri kuita zvidzidzo zvekiriniki kuti tinzwisise zviri nani kuti maantigen bvunzo anoita sei pamatanho akasiyana ehutachiona. Iyo yakawanda data masayendisiti pamusoro pekuti kurongeka kunoshanduka sei nekufamba kwenguva, zvakanyanya bvunzo idzi dzinogona kushandiswa.

Kunzwisisa kusimba uye zvipimo zvePCR uye antigen bvunzo, uye nguva yekuzvishandisa, zvinogona kubatsira kuunza COVID-19 denda pasi pesimba. Saka nguva inotevera yaunowana COVID-19 bvunzo, sarudza iyo yakakunakira.

Nathaniel Hafer, Mubatsiri Purofesa, Chirongwa muMolecular Medicine, UMass Chan Medical School

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