Chikonzero cheCancer yeLung muChina chiri kuchinja
Chikonzero cheCancer yeLung muChina chiri kuchinja
Anonim
Trafiki jam muBeijing, China

China yakaona kuwedzera kunotyisa kwekufa kwegomarara remapapu kwevarume nevakadzi mukati memakumi matatu emakore apfuura, kuwedzera kunonzi kwete chete nekuputa asi nekusvibiswa kwemhepo.

Muna 1990, varume vanenge 760 000 vakafa munyika yose nekenza yemapapu; 164, 448 vavo vakafira muChina. Pakazosvika 2017, nhamba yegore rose yepasi rose yakanga yakura kusvika mamiriyoni 1.3, nevarume vechiChinese vanoverengera chikamu chimwe muzvitatu chevakafa ivavo, kana 477, 246. Nhamba idzi dzakabudiswa mumagazini Cancer muna July.

Zvichakadaro, muna 1990, 272, 811 vakadzi vakafa nekenza yemapapu pasi rose, avo 76,028 vaive maChinese. Pakazosvika 2017, nhamba iyi yakawedzera kusvika 596, 287 vakadzi, kusanganisira 215, 143 vakadzi vechiChinese.

Chii chiri kukonzera kuwedzera kwekufa kwekenza yemapapu muChina? Kusvuta zvechokwadi chimwe chikonzero chokupomera. Asi chimwe chikonzero i ambient particulate nyaya kusvibiswa, inozivikanwa sePM2.5. Idzi tunhu tudiki, tunofema, zvinobva muutsi, huruva, soot nemadota enhunzi, izvo zvinoburitswa mumotokari, mafekitari, nzvimbo dzekuvakira nekupiswa kwemafuta ezvicherwa.

Pasi rose, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunze kunouraya vanhu mamiriyoni 4.2 gore negore, maererano neWorld Health Organization (WHO).

MunaGunyana, Lancet Planetary Health yakaburitsa chirevo chinotsanangura kuti kusvibiswa kwemhepo kwakakanganisa sei hutano hwevagari vekuChina mukati memakore makumi maviri nemanomwe. Ongororo yakaitwa nevanoongorora muAmerica neChina yakaona kuti kuratidzwa kwezvimedu zvinosvibisa zvisingasviki 2.5 micrometer muhupamhi zvakakonzera kufa kwe851, 660 muna 2017. Pakati pavo, 271, 089 vakafa nechirwere chemoyo, kenza yemapapu, chirwere cheshuga uye sitiroko. kusvibiswa kwemhepo yemumba kubva kumafuta akaomarara gore iroro.

Nekudaro, kusvibiswa kwemhepo mukati kwakadzika mune chimwe chinhu, kunyanya nekuti hurumende yeChina yakatanga kurambidza kushandiswa kwemarasha ekushandisa wega, kunyanya kubika kwemba kunoburitsa zvinhu. Maererano neshumo, dzimba dzinoshandisa mafuta akasimba dzakadzika kubva pa61% muna 2005 kusvika pa32% muna 2017.

Dambudziko Rakaoma

Vamwe vatsvakurudzi vakave nemigumisiro yakafanana. Gore rapfuura, Yunivhesiti yeHong Kong yakaongorora mhedzisiro yeiyi diki diki yekusvibisa huwandu hwepagore hwegomarara remapapu muvarume chete. Ongororo iyi yakaitwa kubva muna 2006 kusvika 2014 mumatunhu 295 ekuChina, yakaratidza kuti vari mumadhorobha ndivo vari panjodzi huru kudarika vekumaruwa kweChina. Varume vanogara munzvimbo dzevarombo, dzemumaguta dzine mwero yakaderera yedzidzo vakaratidza mwero wepamusoro wegomarara remapapu. Varume vacho vainyanya kushandirwa sevashandi vekugadzira nekuvaka, kwavaioneswa zvakananga kune zvinosvibisa, tsvakiridzo yakati.

Chimwe chitubu chechinhu ichi chifambiso. Muna 2017, zvekufambisa zvakakonzera 45% yekusvibiswa kwemhepo muBeijing, Reuters yakashuma. China ichiri mugadziri mukuru wemarasha pasi rose uye mutengi, sekureva kweMining Technology, pamwe neiyo huru yekutenga marasha kunze kwenyika. Chikonzero chikuru chemarasha ese aya: 70% yemagetsi anogadzirwa muChina anobva mumarasha.

Fodya neCancer yemapapu

Kana kuyerwa nekushandiswa kwefodya, kusvibiswa kwemhepo kunongonyanya kunetsa muChina. WHO inofungidzira kuti China ine vanhu vanoputa fodya vanosvika mamiriyoni mazana matatu, uye inogadzira nekudya chikamu chimwe muzvitatu chefodya yepasi rose.

Muna 2006, China yakagamuchira nhungamiro yeWHO yekuderedza kuputa. Kunyange zvazvo mitemo ichirambidza kusvuta munzvimbo dzeveruzhinji uye kushambadzwa kwezvinhu zvinogadzirwa nefodya, vagadziri vefodya havafanire kuburitsa pachena zvinhu zvavanoshandisa. Pavanhu mabhiriyoni 1,4 muChina, mamiriyoni 316 vanosvuta.

China Kusvuta

Chii Chiri Mberi

Zvinhu zvachinja zvishoma kubva pakatanga denda. Nekuita kwemaindasitiri pasi uye kurambidzwa kwekufamba kwakaiswa, kuburitswa kwegasi regreenhouse kunotarisirwa kudzikira ne6% gore rino pasi rose. KuChina, kunyanya, avhareji yezvikamu zvidiki (PM2.5) yakaderera ne10.8% kubva muna Ndira kusvika Chikunguru 2020. Bazi reChina reEcology and Environment rakati avhareji yePM2.5 kuverenga yaive pamakumi matatu nematatu micrograms per cubic mita panguva iyoyo, Reuters yakashuma mukati. Nyamavhuvhu.

Zvakadaro, kuzama kwakawanda kuchadikanwa kusvika kuUnited Nations Sustainable Development Goals 'ajenda ye45% kuderedzwa kwehutsi panosvika 2030.

Pakati pa1990 na2017, China yakaenda kukudzikira kwekuburitsa, ichiona kudzikiswa ne9% mumatanho aya, maererano nekuongorora kweLancet Public Health. Pakati pa2013 na2017, China yakaderedza kuburitswa mumaindasitiri ne33% mumaguta makumi manomwe nemana eChinese uye yakaderedza huwandu hwevanhu vanofa ne6.8%, akadaro ongororo ya2020 yeChina chikuru chekudzora kusvibiswa kwemhepo.

Nyika ichine rwendo rurefu rwekuenda kudzikisa zvakanyanya kufa kubva muhutsvina, sezvo vazhinji vevanhu vayo (81%) vachigara munzvimbo dzine mazinga asina hutano, sekureva kwehutano hwemhepo hweWHO.

Beijing

Seema Prasad mutori wenhau wehutano akazvimirira anogara muBangaluru, India. Anonyora @SeemaPrasad_me

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