Nhoroondo Yemaperembudzi, Chirwere Chinokonzera Kuparadzana [PHOTOS]
Nhoroondo Yemaperembudzi, Chirwere Chinokonzera Kuparadzana [PHOTOS]
Anonim

Munhau yose, vane maperembudzi vave vachirambwa uye vachishorwa, vachishorwa uye vachityiwa. Vaive - uye mune mamwe matunhu enyika vachiri - vachinzi nechirwere chinozivikanwa se "chirwere chinopatsanura," icho vanhu vazhinji vaitya nekuda kwekukanganisa kwachinoita ganda nemakumbo. Munhoroondo zhinji, kana uine maperembudzi, waizorarama uri wega - uye waigona kutarisira kusazombobata, kana kuona, vana vako kana nhengo dzemhuri zvakare.

Chirwere chisingaperi chinokonzerwa nebhakitiriya rinonzi Mycobacterium leprae, kana kuti Mycobacterium lepromatosis. Chirwere ichi chinotanga zvishoma nezvishoma uye zvishoma nezvishoma, nezviratidzo zvisingawanzoitiki kwemakore makumi maviri, uye inorwisa granulomas yetsinga, nzira yekufema, uye ganda, zvichiita kuti utera uye hurema. Kunyange zvazvo isinganyanyotapuriranwa, inowanzopararira kuburikidza nekubatana nemvura pakati pevanhu.

Ancient

Zvakaoma kunzwisisa nhoroondo yokutanga yezvokurapa yemaperembudzi, asi mamwe masayendisiti anodavira kuti inodzokera shure muna 1550 B.C., apo vaEgipita vekare vakanyora nezvechirwere chakafanana nemaperembudzi mugwaro rePapyrus. Izvo vatsvakurudzi vane chokwadi chekuwedzera, zvisinei, ndezvokuti zvakanyorwa pamusoro peSushruta-samhita, basa rezvokurapa kubva kuIndia rakasikwa munenge muna 600 B.C.; asi maperembudzi angangove aivapo kuIndia zvakare kare muna 2000 B.C., maererano neEncyclopedia Britannica. Saka, pane kubvumirana kwakawanda kuti maperembudzi anogona kunge akabva kuIndia kana Africa.

Asi yakapararira sei muEurope yose uye nenyika yose? Vamwe vanodavira kuti uto raAlexander Mukuru rakaunza chirwere ichi kubva kuIndia muzana remakore rechina B.C. vachidzokera kuMediterranean. Vamwe vanotenda kuti mauto aPompey akaiunza kubva kuEgypt kuenda kuItaly muzana ramakore rekutanga B.C. Ongororo yakaitwa muna 2005 yakaongorora kwakabva uye kuparadzirwa kwemaperembudzi pachishandiswa kuenzanisa genomics, uye yakatsvaga chirwere kwayakabva muAfrica ndokutamira kuIndia, Nyika Itsva kuburikidza nekutengeswa kwevaranda, uye Europe.

Middle Ages

Bhishopi anorairidza vafundisi

MuMiddle Ages, pakanga pasina chaizvo nzvimbo dzine maperembudzi pase-asi, nzvimbo dzekugara dzaizivikanwa senzvimbo dzemaperembudzi, kana leprosaria. Vane maperembudzi vakanga vakapfuma vaiwanzogara pamba munzvimbo dziri dzoga, asi varombo vaiva nemaperembudzi vaiendeswa kunzvimbo idzi dzokupotera, kwavaisanganiswa nevarombo vakawanda, vakaora mwoyo, kana kuti vairwara. Nzvimbo dzekupotera idzi dzaifambiswa nemamongi, uye dzainge dzagara dzichibatanidzwa nezvakakosha zvemweya kana zvechitendero. Pakazosvika gore ra1200, kwakanga kwava nedzimba dzine maperembudzi dzinenge 19 000 muEurope yose.

Sokunge kushatiswa kweganda nemamota ehosha yacho zvakanga zvisina kukwana kuita chiseko chevanyajambwa, vanhu vomuMiddle Ages vaidavira kuti maperembudzi chirango chaibva kuna Mwari uye kuti varwere vakanga vanyura muchivi. Vanhu vaive nechirwere ichi vaionekwa sevakafa kunzanga - uye chirwere chavo chaizivikanwa se "rufu mhenyu." Vanhu vane maperembudzi vaiwanzotakura bhero ravairidza vachiyambira vanhu vakagwinya kuti munhu airwara ari kuuya.

bhero repakati pemaperembudzi

Mazuvano

Pakati pe1200 ne1600, zvisinei, chirwere muEurope chakatanga kudzikira, kunyangwe masayendisiti asina chokwadi chekuti nei. Muna 1873, musayendisiti wekuNorway anozivikanwa saG. Armauer Hansen akawana bacillus ine maperembudzi, iyo yakaita kuti nzanga ichinje maonerwo nemabatirwo aiitwa maperembudzi. Maperembudzi akatumidzwa zita rekuti Hansen's hosha, zita remusayendisiti uyezve mukuedza kubvisa chiseko chechirwere. Nguva ino isati yasvika, nzira chete ye“kurapa” hosha yacho yakanga iri yokuparadzanisa vanyajambwa kubva kunzanga yose ine utano. Mafuta eganda akamboshandiswa zvakanyanya mukuedza kurapa mamota kubva kuchirwere, asi hapana tsvakurudzo yakawanda iripo yekuti ainyatsoshanda here. Kutarisa hutachiona pachahwo, zvisinei, hakusati kwaiswa panzvimbo.

Maperembudzi

Mumakore ekuma1800 nema1900, mapoka evanhu vane maperembudzi akamera muU.S., kunyanya muLouisiana neHawaii. Zvichida imwe yenzvimbo dzakakurumbira dzine maperembudzi yaive Kalaupapa, kamusha kadiki pachitsuwa cheHawaii cheMoloka'i chakadzivirirwa nemawere anodonhedza shaya kune rimwe divi uye nzvimbo yakakura yePacific Ocean kune imwe. Ichitsanangurwa se "torongo yakasimbiswa nemusikirwo" naRobert Louis Stevenson, Kalaupapa yaive musha wevane maperembudzi 1,200 vaive muhunhapwa pakakwirira (kare ikako, mitemo yaivepo yaimanikidza vane maperembudzi kugara vari voga). Waivawo musha waBaba Damien vane mukurumbira, muprista weRoma Katurike weBelgian akasvika muna 1873 kuzotarisira nzvimbo yaigara vanhu vaiva nemaperembudzi uye akafa nemaperembudzi pachake.

Parizvino, kune mashoma mashoma ane maperembudzi achiriko munyika - seRomania neChina - uko varwere vakwegura vachiripo mushure memakumi emakore ekuzviparadzanisa uye kubviswa kubva kumhuri dzavo. Vanogara nekuti havana kumwe kwekuenda, uye vakazviitira hupenyu vachivimba nevashandi vekurapa uye shamwari dzemumusha.

Kalaupapa

Nhasi (Kurapwa uye Kurapa)

Hapana mubvunzo kuti mitemo nemafungiro pamusoro pemaperembudzi zvakashanduka muzana remakore rapfuura, asi ruseko ruchiripo munzvimbo dzakawanda dzenyika. Maererano neongororo yakaitwa gore rino, pasi rose varwere vane maperembudzi vanotambura nemitemo yerusarura inovarambidza kushanda, kufamba, uye kunyange kuroora, kunyanya muThailand, Nepal, neSingapore. Chirwere ichi chiri kuramba chichibata vanhu vanosvika miriyoni gumi, uye chinotapurira vanhu 250,000 vatsva pasi rose.

maoko ane maperembudzi muIndia, 1990

MuUS, huwandu hwemaperembudzi hwakadzikira zvakanyanya - uye vanongogara kune vanhu vakatapukirwa pavanenge vachifamba kunze kwenyika, kana vakatapukirwa vasati vatamira kuUS Vanhu kubva kuSouth Pacific vakaenda kuHawaii, semuenzaniso, vane mitengo yepamusoro.. Sekureva kwe2014 CDC mushumo, vangangoita zana nyowani dzemaperembudzi dzinoonekwa muUS gore rega rega, uye dzinonyanya kuwanikwa muTexas neLouisiana, idzo dzinozivikanwa nehuwandu hwemaperembudzi uye dzichine mamwe maperembudzi. Mune zvimwe zviitiko, vanhu vanozivikanwa kuti vane maperembudzi nema armadillos, idzo chete mhuka dzinozivikanwa kunze kwevanhu dzinogona kutakura chirwere ichi.

Nhasi, maperembudzi anorapika zvakanyanya uye anorapika - uye kutapukirwa kwakaoma, sezvo pathogen ichizivikanwa nekuve tsikidzi isina simba isingakwanise kurarama kwenguva refu kunze kwemuviri. Ndicho chikonzero nei rusaruro rworutyo, rusaruro, uye kuzviparadzanisa rwakakomberedza hosha yacho kwezviuru zvamakore runofanira kubviswa chose chose; kuita kudaro kuchabatsira kubvisa hosha yacho pachayo. Muna Gunyana 2010, United Nations Human Rights Council yakatambira chisungo chekupedza rusaruro kune vane maperembudzi, uye nepo dzimwe nyika dzichiri kusaririra shure kwemirairo iyi, zvakakosha kuti tikunde kusava nehanya kuti tibvise maonero echinyakare pamusoro pemaperembudzi.

Yakakurumbira nenyaya