ADHD, kusagadzikana kwemaitiro uye kusvuta zvakanyanya zvine hukama nekusiya chikoro chesekondari
ADHD, kusagadzikana kwemaitiro uye kusvuta zvakanyanya zvine hukama nekusiya chikoro chesekondari
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Vechidiki vane hanya-kutadza / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) - chirwere chepfungwa chinowanzozivikanwa muvana muUnited States - kashoma kuti vapedze chikoro chesekondari nenguva kupfuura vadzidzi vane zvimwe zvirwere zvepfungwa zvinowanzoonekwa zvakanyanya, nyika huru. kudzidza nevaongorori paUC Davis Chikoro cheMishonga chakawana. Chidzidzo chacho chakawana kuti chinenge chikamu chimwe muzvitatu chevadzidzi vane ADHD, zvakapetwa kaviri chikamu sevadzidzi vasina chirwere chepfungwa, vanosiya kana kunonoka kupedza chikoro chesekondari.

Chidzidzo chacho chakaongororawo migumisiro yekushandiswa kwezvinodhaka uye kushungurudzwa pakupedza chikoro chesekondari uye yakaona kuti pakati pevadzidzi vanoita zvekushandisa zvinodhaka, kusanganisira doro nezvimwe zvinodhaka, vechidiki vanosvuta fodya ndivo vari pangozi huru yekurega.

Kune marudzi matatu eADHD: rudzi rwe hyperactive, rudzi rusina hanya uye rudzi rwakabatanidzwa. Zviratidzo zvinosanganisira kusakwanisa kuteerera, kurota masikati machena, kuvarairwa zviri nyore uye kugara uchifamba kana kusakwanisa kuramba wakagara.

“Vanhu vakawanda vanofunga kuti mwana wechikoro ari kutamba, anonyepa nekuba ndiye anogona kusiira chikoro panzira. Asi takaona kuti vadzidzi vane rudzi rwakasanganiswa rweADHD - rudzi rwakanyanya - vane mukana wakakura wekusiya chikoro kupfuura vadzidzi vane matambudziko ekuranga," akadaro Julie Schweitzer, nyanzvi yeADHD kuUC Davis MIND Institute, purofesa we psychiatry uye maitiro sainzi uye munyori mukuru wechidzidzo. "Chidzidzo ichi chinoratidza kuti ADHD ihosha yakakomba inokanganisa kugona kwemwana kubudirira muchikoro uye nenzira inogona kuderedza kubudirira muhupenyu."

Rakadhindwa pamhepo muna Chikunguru mu Journal of Psychiatric Research, chidzidzo che "Childhood and Adolescent-start Psychiatric Disorders, Substance Use, and Fail to Graduate High School Nenguva" chakawana kuti 32.3 muzana yevadzidzi vane yakabatanidzwa mhando yeADHD - iyo inosanganisira hyperactive. uye kusatarisisa zviratidzo - kusiya chikoro chesekondari. Gumi neshanu muzana yevechiri kuyaruka vasina chirwere chepfungwa vanosiya chikoro.

“Kunzwisisa zvinhu zvinokonzeresa kusiira chikoro panzira zvine chekuita neutano hweveruzhinji, zvichitariswa kuti chikamu chimwe muzvitatu chevechidiki munyika muno hachipedze chikoro nenguva. Kutsigira kupindira kwehutano hwepfungwa kuvadzidzi kunogona kukanganisa zvakanyanya kuderedza chikoro chesekondari, "akadaro munyori wekudzidza Elizabeth Miller, mutevedzeri wepurofesa wevana uye nyanzvi yemishonga yevechiri kuyaruka paUC Davis Children's Hospital.

Muna 2006 vana vanosvika mamiriyoni 4.5 muUnited States pakati pemakore mashanu kusvika ku17 vakaonekwa kuti vane hanya-kukanganisa / hyperactivity disorder, maererano neCenters for Disease Control and Prevention. Inofungidzirwa kuti 9.5 muzana yevakomana uye 5.9 muzana yevasikana vanoonekwa vaine chirwere ichi.

Vechidiki vanotevera vari panjodzi vadzidzi vane dambudziko rekuzvibata, vane zviratidzo zvinosanganisira hutsinye, kunyepa, kuba, kurovha, kuparadza uye kutyora mutemo. Makumi matatu nerimwe muzana evadzidzi vane dambudziko rekuita vanosiya chikoro, akadaro Joshua Breslau, purofesa wemushonga wemukati uye munyori anotungamira wechidzidzo ichi. Breslau akati tsvagiridzo iyi inoratidza kuti kune nzira dzakasiyana dzekusaita zvakanaka kuchikoro chesekondari.

“Chidzidzo ichi chinoburitsa nzira dzakawanda dzingakanganisa utano hwepfungwa padanho rechikoro chesekondari. Kutarisa-kushomeka / hyperactivity kusagadzikana kunokanganisa kubudirira nekuti kunokanganisa magonero anoita vadzidzi mabasa ekutanga ekirasi kubva pakuteerera kusvika pakushandura basa ravo rechikoro, "akadaro Breslau. “Vadzidzi vane dambudziko rekuzvibata vanokwanisa kuita sezvakaita vamwe vose mudzidzo asi nyaya dzechirango pamwe nekuita nemaitiro ehupenyu hwechikoro zvinogona kuita kuti vasiye chikoro.”

Pachidzidzo ichi, vatsvakurudzi vakaongorora mubatanidzwa, fungidziro yehucheche- uye kuyaruka-kutanga kwepfungwa uye kushandisa-zvinodhaka kusagadzikana pakutadza kupedza chikoro chesekondari nenguva, vachishandisa data yakaunganidzwa muna 2001 uye 2002 kubva kuNational Epidemiological Survey yeDoro uye Related. Conditions. Huwandu hunosvika zviuru makumi mana nezvitatu, 000 vevatori vechikamu vakasiyana-siyana vevarume nevakadzi vanopfuura gumi nemasere kubva kuUnited States yese vakabvunzurudzwa nevamiriri veUS Census Bureau nezvezera rekutanga kwekuongororwa kwepfungwa, kushandisa zvinodhaka uye kupedza chikoro chesekondari. Vakabvunzwa havana kubatanidzwa kana vaine makore asingasviki masere edzidzo kana kuti vakasvika kuU.S. mushure memakore 13. Zvose zve29, 662 zvevakabvunzwa zvakabatanidzwa mukudzidza kweUC Davis.

Pakati pehudiki nehurwere hwepfungwa dzevechiri kuyaruka, kuongororwa nemhando yakasanganiswa yeADHD kana rudzi rusina hanya - pa28.6 muzana - zvakakonzera kuwanda kwepamusoro-soro. Vadzidzi vane mania, chirwere chepfungwa, uye panic disorder vakadonha pa26.6 uye 24.9 muzana maererano. Vadzidzi vane zvimwe zvirwere zvehutano hwepfungwa vaive nemwero wekuregera muchikamu chepamusoro-kusvika chakaderera che20-percent. Matambudziko aya aisanganisira phobias chaiyo (sekutya mvura), social phobia (kutya vanhu), post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized kusagadzikana kusagadzikana uye kuora mwoyo.

Asi kunyanya kufanotaura nezvekusiya chikoro kupfuura zvimwe zvirwere zvepfungwa kunze kweADHD uye kusagadzikana kwemaitiro kwaiva kushandiswa kwefodya. Ongororo iyi yakaratidza kuti chikamu che29 muzana chevadzidzi vaishandisa fodya vakatadza kupedza chikoro chesekondari nenguva. 20 muzana bedzi yepwere dzakashandisa doro uye 24,6 muzana yepwere dzakashandisa zvinodhaka dzakarega. Nekudaro, apo zvinhu zvitatu izvi zvakaongororwa pamwechete, mhedzisiro yekunwa uye kushandisa zvinodhaka yakanga isisiri yakakosha, akadaro Breslau.

"Vana vanosvuta vaiva nengozi huru yekurega chikoro kupfuura vana vanonwa doro kana kushandisa zvimwe zvinodhaka. Patakatarisa kusvuta pamwe chete nezvimwe zvinhu, kunwa uye kushandisa zvinodhaka hakuna kuwedzera njodzi yekusapedza chikoro chesekondari nenguva. Iko hakuna kumwe kuwedzera kwenjodzi yekusiya chikoro kana uchinge wazvidavirira kuputa,”akadaro Breslau.

Zvikonzero zvinoita kuti nyaya iyi iongororwe zvakare, akadaro. Zvisinei, mabhuku aripo anoratidza kuti kusaita zvakanaka kwedzidzo kunoparira kusvuta. Kana ichi chiri chokwadi, ipapo kuputsa hukama pakati pekusvuta uye dzidzo zvingave zvakakosha kuti uwedzere kuderedza kuwanda kwekusvuta, akadaro Breslau.

Mhedzisiro yezviwanikwa, maererano naBreslau, ndeyekuti kukanganisa kwehutano hwepfungwa padzidzo kunogona kusimuka kubva pane zvishoma mamiriro ezvinhu.

"Ongororo iyi inoratidza kuti kutarisa padanho rakatetepa uye rine tariro rinodzoreka rehutano hwepfungwa kunogona kuve nemhedzisiro mukuvandudza kugona kwechikoro mudzidzo yesekondari."

Schweitzer akataura kuti kuronga kupindira kunoshanda kubatsira vadzidzi vane ADHD vakapedza chikoro chesekondari kwaizova nemhedzisiro yakakosha yenguva refu munharaunda.

"Kana usina dhigirii rako rechikoro chesekondari, mari yaunowana inova shoma. Haukwanise kutenga dzimba nemotokari. Vanhu vakasiya chikoro chesekondari vanowanzovimba nerubatsiro rweveruzhinji. Izvi chirwere chinokanganisa zvakanyanya kwenguva refu pakukwanisa kwako kubudirira uye kubatsira munharaunda, kwete kuchikoro chete, asi kwehupenyu hwako hwese,”akadaro.

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